So, what exactly am I going to teach during the student-teacher training, you ask? Take a look at 3 of my objectives for the project:
1. A: English major student-teachers
B: should be able to define an English language-learning lesson objective
C: given a real-life scenario and a specific topic with corresponding vocabulary
D: until a concise, correct objective is achieved.
2. A: English major student-teachers
B: should be able to model correct English pronunciation during an English language-learning lesson
C: given a real-life scenario, vocabulary words and practice sentences
D: for 60% of the words and sentences attempted.
3. A: English major student-teachers
B: should be able to lead a student-to-student model dialogue activity in an English language-learning class
C: given a real-life scenario, a specific topic, corresponding vocabulary and practice dialogues
D: with students completing the role play activity, on their own, with 50% of the sentences correctly pronounced.
All three of the above are enabling objectives because they “are the supporting behaviors that, when grouped together; build the path to a terminal objective” (Hodell, 2011 p.88). Hodell (2011) describes terminal objectives as the “exit competencies expected of a learner” (p.87). For this training, the terminal objective includes creating an English language-learning lesson plan with the correct elements; successful completion of the given objectives helps the student-teacher in realizing the terminal objective. The first and third objectives are within the cognitive domain, wherein processing data occurs (Hodell, 2011 p.93). Student-teachers need to have the knowledge to be able to define an acceptable lesson objective as well as the method to successfully execute a student-to-student model dialogue with secondary school learners. The second objective lies with in the psychomotor domain because it involves ‘doing’, in this case correctly pronouncing words and sentences in English (Writing Learning Objectives, n.d.).
OK, so…how do I get from written objectives to implementation?…
Hodell (2011) describes the development phase of the ADDIE model as the bridge between the design process and implementation of training (p. 59). Everything must be scrutinized by the designer because this is when “designers…put the finishing touches on the observable deliverables for a project. It is also the best opportunity to do pilot testing before a project goes into implementation” (Hodell, 2011 p. 60). The observable deliverables for a project include any printed materials (manuals, workbooks, etc.), audio/video, web-materials, other visual aids, etc. Moving to the final product from rough drafts include monitoring the costs and expenses of the products, keeping in mind deadlines, giving written agreements of exact specifications for materials, checking sample materials, giving the final approval and executing a pilot test (Hodell, 2011 p. 60). Pilot testing gives the opportunity for the designer to evaluate the project before it is fully implemented, allowing any problems to be solved before final production of materials (Hodell, 2011 p. 60). During the development phase, the designer needs to manage the activities of all the SMEs and IT professionals to make a final product.
For the student-teacher training envisioned for the final project, first a timeline of training dates in the classroom and at respective schools for each semester needs to be established. This requires cooperation from SMEs (associate professors) and participating schools. Next, the production of the student-teacher workbooks needs to meet the budget, including additional resources and activities available on the training website. All of the printed materials and PowerPoint presentations need to meet pre-determined specifications of color, text, font and graphics and need to be checked for final approval by the designer. Potential roadblocks to the development phase would come from SMEs, the associate professors who oversee the English Education Major program in terms of: what content to include and when, what style of English Language Learning should be stressed and agreeing on the most important factors being highlighted during the training, among others. Meeting in advance to establish everyone’s role in developing the training can help in delineating who is an SME and who is the designer as well as what these roles include. This would help when brainstorming about what content to include in a relaxed environment to ease any potential stressors. Finally, pilot testing would help with any other problems inherent in the design or content of the training.
Wow, that’s a lot to take in, I know. Brainstorming about potential problems I may come across helps me in this phase of the project so that I can shape the training in the right direction and steer clear of unwanted situations. While design is the crown jewel of the ADDIE process, the particular arrangement of jewels in the crown is due to development. The quality of deliverables and the project as a whole will be judged not only on the content, but also according to the aesthetic quality of the instruction. This begs the question: should a professional aesthetic designer have the final say in any of the deliverables of a project, or does that ultimately come down to the decision of the instructional designer?
Hodell, C. (2011). ISD From the ground up: A no-nonsense approach to instructional design.Alexandria,VA: American Society for Training & Development.
Writing Learning Objectives: Beginning with the end in mind.. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/fd/writingobjectives.pdf